I have read your post a few times, even printed it out to read in the garden
I think you are describing a lot more than what I would term 'adhere'. It seems you have explained aspects of all of adhere, stick and connect - and a whole lot more?
In a simple manner I would say 'adhering' is being fixed to one point of an opponent and 'sticking' is revolving whilst adhering.
Sticking and adhering are standing like the scale.
'Connecting' is turning to receive the energy. 'Following' is perhaps allowing your self to be turned.
Connecting and Following is to turn like a wheel.
Adhering to one point I would say has further meaning in that 'the one point' is not the point of contact but the other person's centre of gravity or the origin of their force. (Following the persons back)
Sticking is revolving at the point of contact so that you can be moved by the other person’s force. That’s the mark of a scale - it is moved in order to weigh but remains upright.
Connecting is turning - it is not receiving straight, and enables you to weigh without being weighed.
Following is giving up your own intention in order to be moved by their movement.
It's difficult to separate them isn't it!.
The errors associated with adhere stick, connect and follow are listed as "butting, thinness/insufficiency, resistance and losing/separation"
butting is using strength to adhere - it has the effect of making you lean forward.
thinness is when your peng is insufficient and your position collapses - it has the effect of making you lean backwards.
resistance is when you don’t turn - it is the fault of receiving straight.
separation/losing is breaking contact - it's when you haven’t given up yourself and are moving under your own design. (though later on you can follow your own intention and the opponent.
The rest of the things you mention I would fit into other energies – so I needed to think a bit longer about them. Perhaps you are referring to adhere as in adhere / evade, which I believe then represents more than it does in the context of adhere, stick connect and follow?
Here’s part of my take on adhere and evade
I use binding energy (Chieh) to stop leaning backward - I open out from my centre increasing my chi kung. sort of making the drum fuller. The increase of peng repairs the position - I use peng to adhere tightly to his centre and also to support his pressure. (Possibly with press – ie supporting in two directions)
If I am feeling pretty potent I use this to stop the other persons energy emerging - sort of neutralising their whole body before their energy has completely come out. (I dont get to do that very often!)
This is the adhering half of adhering and evading. The hard, of the hard and soft.
The soft / evading contains draining energy (Tso) – I disconnect and then sink, then close in to my centre, the energy goes inwards and downwards. Their energy falls to my back foot and then I compress. Roll back is the change over from sinking to compression.
If I have connected to their chi kung I can pull them internally with no movement. Closing into my centre draws them in – or up or whatever. If I am feeling potent they can be made to fall without turning them off and without having to neutralise. (I can only do this on good days and only in a demo – not when being pushed)
That’s soft and hard, adhere and evade.
There is still food for thought for me in your post – thanks I’ll keep thinking. I hope mine provides some stimulation for others too.